Sandvik Materials Technology is a developer and producer of advanced stainless steels, special alloys, titanium and other high-performance materials

Sandvik SAF 2304 (Tube and pipe, seamless)

Datasheet updated 2014-03-18 10:46:38 (supersedes all previous editions)

Sandvik SAF 2304 is a lean duplex (austenitic-ferritic) stainless steel characterized by the following properties:

  • Very good resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC)
  • Good resistance to general corrosion and pitting
  • High strength - approximately twice the proof strength of austenitic stainless steels
  • Physical properties that offer design advantages
  • Ease of fabrication and good toughness
  • Good weldability

Standards

  • UNS S32304
  • EN number 1.4362
  • EN name X2CrNiN23-4
  • W.Nr. 1.4362
  • DIN X 2 CrNiN 23 4
  • SS 2327
  • AFNOR Z 2 CN 23.04AZ

Product standards
Seamless tube and pipe: ASTM A789; A790; EN 10216-5
Welded tube and pipe: ASTM A789; A790
Strip, sheet: 10088-2
Bar steel and forged billets: EN 10088-3

Approvals
Approved by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, div. 1 construction.
ASME B31.3 Process Piping
VdTÜV-Werkstoffblatt 496
NGS 1607 (Nordic rules for applications) valid for SAF 2304 made by Sandvik.
Approved by DnV for general use on ships
Approved by RINA, registration No MAC/112/90

Chemical composition (nominal) %

C Si Mn P S Cr Ni Mo Cu N
≤0.030 ≤1.0 ≤2.0 ≤0.035 ≤0.015 22.5 4.5 0.3 0.3 0.1

Forms of supply

Seamless tube and pipe- finishes and dimensions

Seamless tube and pipe in Sandvik SAF 2304 is supplied in dimensions up to 260mm outside diameter. The delivery condition is solution annealed and either white pickled or bright annealed.

For hydraulic tubing applications SAF 2304 is also marketed under the name PW 400.

Other forms of supply:

  • Welded tube and pipe
  • Fittings
  • Wire electrodes and filler wire/pipe
  • Covered electrodes
  • Strip electrodes for surfacing
  • Strip, annealed or cold-rolled to different hardness
  • Bar steel
  • Plate, sheet and wide strip
  • Forged products
  • Cast products

Mechanical properties

The following figures apply to the material in the solution annealed condition. Tube and pipe with wall thickness above 20 mm (0.787 in.) may have slightly lower values. For seamless tubes with a wall thickness below 4 mm we guarantee proof strength (Rp0.2) values that are 50 MPa higher than those listed below at 20°C (68°F) as well as those listed at higher temperatures. More detailed information can be supplied on request.

At 20 °C (68°F)

Tube and pipe with a wall thickness max. 20 mm (0.79 in.)

Metric units
Proof strength Tensile strength Elong. Hardness
Rp0.2a Rp1.0a Rm Ab A2" HRC
MPa MPa MPa % %
≥400c) ≥450 630-820c) ≥25 ≥25 ≤30
Imperial units
Proof strength Tensile strength Elong. Hardness
Rp0.2a Rp1.0a Rm Ab A2" HRC
ksi ksi ksi % %
≥58c) ≥65 87-119c) ≥25 ≥25 ≤30

1 MPa = 1 N/mm2
a) Rp0.2 and Rp1.0 correspond to 0.2% offset and 1.0% offset yield strength, respectively.
b) Based on L0 = 5.65 √S0 where L0 is the original gauge length and S0 the original cross-section area.
c) For tubes with outside diameter max. 25.4 mm we guarantee 0.2% proof strength 450 MPa (65 ksi) and tensile strength min. 690 MPa (100 ksi) (ASTM A789).

Impact strength

Sandvik SAF 2304 has good impact strength both at room temperature and at low temperatures, as shown by Figure 2.

Figure 2. Impact strength of Sandvik SAF 2304 compared with carbon steel. Lowest value for a TIG-joint is also reported for SAF 2304. Charpy test specimens (10 x 10 mm, 0.394 x 0.0394 in.) taken from tube 260 x 20 mm (10.2 x 0.29 in.) in size.

At high temperatures

If Sandvik SAF 2304 is exposed to temperatures exceeding 280 °C (540 °F), for prolonged periods, the microstructure changes, which results in a reduction in impact strength. This does not necessarily affect the behavior of the material at the operating temperature. For example, heat exchanger tubes can be used at higher temperatures without any problems. Please contact Sandvik for more information.For pressure vessel applications, 280°C (540°F) is required as a maximum according to VdTÜV-Wb 496.

Metric units
Temperature Proof strength Proof strength
Wt < 4 mm Wt > 4 mm
°C Rp0.2 Rp0.2
MPa MPa
min min
50 420 370
100 380 330
150 360 310
200 340 290
250 330 280
300 310 270
Imperial units
Temperature Proof strength Proof strength
Wt < 0.16" Wt > 0.16"
°F Rp0.2 Rp0.2
ksi ksi
min min
120 61.0 54.0
200 56.0 48.5
300 52.0 45.0
400 49.0 42.0
500 47.5 40.5
600 46.0 38.5

Physical properties

Density: 7.8 g/cm3, 0.28 lb/in3

Specific heat capacity
Temperature, °C J/(kg °C) Temperature, °F Btu/(lb °F)
20 490 68 0.12
100 505 200 0.12
200 530 400 0.13
300 550 600 0.13
400 590 800 0.14

Thermal conductivity

Metric units
Temperature 20 100 200 300 400
°C W/(m °C)
SAF 2304
16 17 18 19 21
AISI 316L 14 15 17 18 20
Imperial units
Temperature 68 200 400 600 800
°F Btu/(ft h °F)
SAF 2304 9 9.5 10.5 11.5 12.5
AISI 316L 8 8.5 9.5 10.5 11.5

Thermal expansion, mean values in temperature ranges (x10-6) SAF 2304 has a far lower coefficient of thermal expansion than austenitic stainless steels and therefore possesses certain design advantages.

Metric units
Temperature 30-100 30-200 30-300 30-400
°C Per °C
SAF 2304 13.5 14.0 14.5 14.5
Carbon steel 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0
AISI 304L/316L 16.5 17.0 17.5 18.0
Imperial units
Temperature 86-200 86-400 86-600 86-800
°F Per °F
SAF 2304 7.5 8.0 8.0 8.0
Carbon steel 7.0 7.0 7.5 8.0
AISI 304L/316L 9.5 9.5 10 10

Figure 3. Thermal expansion, per °C (30-100°C, 86-210°F).

Modulus of elasticity, (x103)
Temperature, °C MPa Temperature, °F ksi
20 200 68 29.0
100 194 200 28.2
200 186 400 27.0
300 180 600 26.2

Corrosion resistance

General corrosion

Due to the high chromium content and its well-balanced composition Sandvik SAF 2304 possesses excellent corrosion resistance in acidic environments. The table below gives the corrosion rate in different acids and Figures 4-6 show isocorrosion diagrams for Sandvik SAF 2304 in sulphuric, formic and nitric acid, respectively.

Corrosion rates in acid-water mixtures, mm/year (mpy). Activated specimens, 1+3+3 days, average of the last two periods for two specimens.

Conc.
Temperature Sandvik
Weight-% °C (°F) SAF 2304 AISI 304L AISI 316L
Acetic acid CH3COOH
20
B 0.01 (0.4) 0.01 (0.4)
50
B 0 0.04 (1.6) 0
70
B 0
90
B 0.01 (0.4)
Formic acid, HCOOH
5
60 (140) 0
10
B 0.04 (1.6) 0.80 (32) 0.19 (7.6)
30
60 (140) 0
30
90 (194) 0
80
90 (194) 0 0.50 (20)
90
60 (140) 0
Hydrochloric acid, HCI
0.5
40 (104) 0 0
1
40 (104) 0.30 (12) 0.70 (28)
Nitric acid, HNO3 (5x2 days)
65
B 0.16 (6.4) 0.16 (6.4) 0.30 (12)
Phosphoric acid, H3PO4
30
B 0.10 (4) 0.20 (8) 0.07 (2.8)
50
100 (212) 0.04 (1.6) 0.09 (3.6) 0.21 (8.4)
60
90 (194) 0.01 (0.4) 0.2 (0.8) 0.02 (0.8)
80
80 (176) 0.01 (0.4) 0.01(0.4) 0.06 (2.4)
Sulphuric acid, H2SO4
5
60 (140) 0
5
90 (194) 0.06 (2.4) 3.6 (144)
10
60 (140) 0.10 (4) 0.66 (26.4)
10
70 (158) 0.14 (5.6) 1.7 (68)
10
80 (176) 0.20 (8) 7.9 (316)
15
50 (122) 0.17 (6.8) 0.47 (18.8)
20
30 (86) 0.20 (8) 0.02 (0.8)

B = Boiling

Figure 4. Isocorrosion diagram for Sandvik SAF 2304, AISI 304L and AISI 316L in a naturally aerated stagnant sulphuric acid. The curves represent a corrosion rate of 0.1 mm/year (4 mpy).

Figure 5. Isocorrosion diagram for Sandvik SAF 2304. AISI 304L and AISI 316L in formic acid. The curves represent a corrosion rate of 0.1 mm/year (4 mpy).

Figure 6. Isocorrosion diagram for Sandvik SAF 2304 and AISI 304L in nitric acid. The curves represent a corrosion rate of 0.1 mm/year (4 mpy)

Pitting

The pitting resistance of a steel is determined primarily by its chromium and molybdenum contents, but the nitrogen content also has an effect. The manufacturing and fabrication practice, e.g. welding, are also of vital importance for the actual performance in service.

A parameter for comparing the pitting resistance of different steels is the PRE-number (Pitting Resistance Equivalent).
The PRE is defined as, in weight-%
PRE = % Cr + 3.3 %x Mo + 16 x % N

The minimum PRE numbers for Sandvik SAF 2304 and the austenitic standard stainless steels AISI 316L and AISI 304L are given in the following table.

Alloy % Cr % Mo % N PRE
Sandvik SAF 2304 23 0.1 24
AISI 316L 17 2.2 24
AISI 304L 18.4 18

As the table shows, the PRE number for Sandvik SAF 2304 is considerably higher than the number for AISI 304L and comparable to the number for AISI 316L. Potentiostatic tests in solutions with different chloride contents (pH = 6) are reported in Figure 7. Each curve is based on at least 4 measuring points, each of which is derived from a minimum of three separate measurements. Variation in the measurement results is within the range +/-5°C (+/-9°F). The test results for AISI 316L have been compared with results obtained under practical conditions of service, and the correlation is good. As is evident from Figure 7, the critical temperature for pitting for Sandvik SAF 2304 is higher than that for AISI 304L and comparable to that for AISI 316L. The test results correspond with the PRE ranking.

Figure 7. Critical pitting temperature (CPT) for Sandvik SAF 2304, AISI 304L and AISI 316L in neutral chloride solutions (potentiostatic determination at +300 mV/SCE).

Stress corrosion and cracking

Because of its two-phase structure and its well balanced composition, Sandvik SAF 2304 possesses very good resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This is evident from the results of tests in both concentrated chloride solutions and oxygen-containing dilute chloride environments.

Figure 8 shows the results of tests carried out in 40% CaCl2 solution at 100°C (210°F). In this environment, the stress that is required to cause fracture due to SCC (known as the threshold stress) is much higher for Sandvik SAF 2304 than for AISI 304/304L and AISI 316/316L. This demonstrates the superior resistance of Sandvik SAF 2304.

Welding of Sandvik SAF 2304 does not appreciably reduce the resistance to SCC, provided that the welding recommendations are followed (see Welding). The threshold stress of material that has been TIG-welded with Sandvik 22.8.3.L or MMA-welded with Sandvik 22.9.3.LR is on a level with that of the parent metal.

The results of SCC testing of Sandvik SAF 2304 in chloride solutions at high temperatures and pressures are presented in Figure 9. The curve for Sandvik SAF 2304 is based on tests performed in various chloride contents and at different temperatures. Usually six separate measurements were taken at each measuring point. The testing method involved spring-loaded specimens stressed to the proof strength (Rp0.2) at the testing temperature, or U-bends in which the stress at the apex is at least equal to the proof strength of the solution annealed material. The oxygen content of the inlet water (refreshed autoclaves were used) was 4.6 to 10 ppm and the pH 4.5 to 7. The curve for AISI 304/304L and AISI 316/316L is based on published test results and on practical experience.

Figure 8. Results of SCC tests with constant load on Sandvik SAF 2304, AISI 304L and AISI 316L in 40% CaCl2, pH = 6.5, at 100°C (210°F) with aerated test solution.

The results in Figure 9 indicate that Sandvik SAF 2304 can be used in dilute oxygen-bearing chloride solutions up to about 125°C (260°F) without any risk of SCC. This is much higher than for AISI 304/ 304L and AISI 316/316L, which should not be used above 60°C (140°F) in such environments. At temperatures above 125°C (260°F), Sandvik SAF 2304 should not be used in oxygen-bearing solutions in environments with more than about 10 ppm Cl-. For such conditions, we recommend Sandvik SAF 2205, Sandvik SAF 2507 or Sanicro 28. At low oxygen contents, which are common in the process and power industries, considerably higher chloride contents and temperatures can be tolerated by Sandvik SAF 2304 without any risk of SCC.

Figure 9. SCC resistance in oxygen-bearing (approximately 8 ppm) neutral chloride solutions. Testing time 1000 hours. Load > yield strength at testing temperature.

Intergranular corrosion

Sandvik SAF 2304 is a member of the family of modern duplex stainless steels whose chemical manner that the reformation of austenite in the heat-affected zone adjacent to the weld takes place quickly. This results in a microstructure that gives corrosion properties and toughness similar to that of the parent metal. Welded joints in Sandvik SAF 2304 easily pass Strauss' intergranular corrosion testing according to SS-EN ISO 3651-2 Method A.

Crevice corrosion

In the same way as the resistance to pitting can be related to the chromium, molybdenum and nitrogen contents of the steel so can the resistance to crevice corrosion. Sandvik SAF 2304 possesses better resistance to crevice corrosion than steels of the AISI 304/304L type and is comparable with AISI 316/316L.

Erosion corrosion

Steels of the AISI 304/304L and AISI 316/316L type can be attacked by erosion corrosion if exposed to flowing media containing highly abrasive solid particles, e.g. sand, or media with very high flow rates. Under such conditions, Sandvik SAF 2304 displays very good resistance because of its combination of high mechanical strength and good corrosion resistance.

Corrosion fatigue

Sandvik SAF 2304 possesses higher strength and better corrosion resistance than ordinary austenitic stainless steels. Consequently, Sandvik SAF 2304 has considerably better fatigue strength under corrosive conditions than such steels.

Heat treatment

The tubes are normally delivered in heat treated condition. If additional heat treatment is needed due to further processing the following is recommended.

Solution annealing

930 -1050°C (1710 -1920°F), rapid cooling in air or water.

Welding

The weldability of Sandvik SAF 2304 is good. Suitable welding methods are manual metal-arc welding with covered electrodes or gas shielded arc welding.

Welding should be undertaken within the heat input range 0.5-2.5 kJ/mm, using an interpass temperature of maximum 250°C (482oF). Preheating or post-weld heat treatment is normally not necessary.

Filler metals of austenitic-ferritic type shall be used in order to obtain a weld metal with corrosion resistance and mechanical properties close to the parent metal. For gas shielded arc welding, Sandvik 23.7.L, Sandvik 22.8.3.L or Sandvik 22.8.3.LSi are recommended, and for manual metal-arc welding the covered electrode Sandvik 22.9.3.LR. These filler metals can also be used for welding Sandvik SAF 2304 to carbon steels and stainless steels. The covered electrode Sandvik 23.12.2.LR and the wire electrode Sandvik 24.13.L can also be used for this purpose. When welding components for use in high concentrated nitric acid the Sandvik can advice on the choice of filler metal.

Fabrication

Bending

The starting force needed for bending is slightly higher for Sandvik SAF 2304 than for ASTM 304/316. Sandvik SAF 2304 can be cold bent to 25% deformation without requiring subsequent heat treatment. Under service conditions where the risk of stress corrosion cracking starts to increase, for example where the material temperature is nearly 125°C (255°F) in a neutral oxygen-bearing environment with around 100 ppm Cl- , heat treatment is recommended even after moderate cold bending. For pressure vessel applications in Germany and the Nordic countries heat treatment may be required after cold deformation in accordance with VdTÜV-Wb 496 and NGS 1607. Heat treatment is carried out in the form of solution annealing (see under Heat treatment) or resistance annealing. Hot bending is carried out at 1100-950°C (2010-1740°F) and should be followed by solution annealing.

Expanding

In comparison with austenitic stainless steels, Sandvik SAF 2304 has a higher proof strength. This must be borne in mind when expanding tubes into tube-sheets. Normal expanding methods can be used, but the expansion requires higher initial force and should be undertaken in one operation.

Contact us for detailed recommendations on expanding duplex stainless steels.

Machining

Being a two-phase material (austenitic-ferritic) Sandvik SAF 2304 will present a different tool wear profile from that of single-phase steels of type ASTM 304L. The cutting speed must, therefore, be slightly lower than that recommended for ASTM 304L and as a first recommendation 25 % lower cutting speeds should be used compared to the speed for machining Sanmac 304/304L. It is, however, recommended that a tougher insert grade is used for semi-roughing operations, Sanmac 304/304L.

Applications

Sandvik SAF 2304 possesses good mechanical and physical properties, excellent resistance to stress corrosion cracking and other forms of corrosion as well as good weldability. These properties make it both a technically and economically superior alternative to stainless steels such as the austenitic steels AISI 304, 304L, 316, 316L, 321 and 347, the ferritic chromium steels AISI 430 and 444 and the martensitic chromium steels of the AISI 410 and 420 type. Sandvik SAF 2304 also has advantages over low-alloy steels. Examples where Sandvik SAF 2304 offers advantages over other materials are given in the following table.

The good mechanical and corrosion properties make Sandvik SAF 2304 an economical choice in many applications by reducing the life cycle cost of equipment.

Industry
Applications
Used today
Advantages
of Sandvik SAF 2304
Process
industry

Heat exchangers and piping where chlorides are present
AISI 304/304L
AISI 316/316L
Higher resistance to SCC
Instrumentation tubing, steam tracing
AISI 304/304L
AISI 316/316L
Higher resistance to SCC
Petrochemical industry
Tubular reactors for high temperatures where carbon steel is used for the shell
AISI 304/304L
AISI 316/316L
Coefficient of thermal expansion comparable to that of carbon steel
Pulp & paper
Digester preheater
Evaporators
AISI 304/304L
AISI 316/316L
Higher resistance to SCC
Higher resistance to SCC
Nuclear power
Reheaters
Carbon steels
AISI 430
AISI 304/304L
Ease of fabrication, good corrosion resistance
Power
Feed water heaters
AISI 430
AISI 304/304L
High resistance to SCC, high strength and ease of fabrication
Engineering
Beams and torque transmitting shafts
Carbon steels
AISI 304/304L
AISI 316/316L
High strength combined with excellent corrosion resistance, ease of fabrication and low cost
Hydraulic system
Hydraulic tubing
Carbon steels
Excellent resistance to corrosion
Reduced installation cost owing to easy cleaning
Oil and gas
Coolers on- and offshore. Piping systems and flow lines on- and offshore
Carbon steels
AISI 304/304L
AISI 316/316L
AISI 420
Optimal combination of strength weldability, corrosion resistance and cost
Tensioning systems on offshore rigs. Instrumentation tubing
AISI 304/304L
AISI 316/316L
Carbon steels
High strength combined with high corrosion resistance

Disclaimer: Recommendations are for guidance only, and the suitability of a material for a specific application can be confirmed only when we know the actual service conditions. Continuous development may necessitate changes in technical data without notice. This datasheet is only valid for Sandvik materials.

Article functions

Related information

Contact us

Print this datasheet

Export to PDF

Download this datasheet as PDF or send by email.
Download as PDF

Contact us