Sanmac 304/304L (Billets)
Datasheet updated 2013-03-22 15:58:49 (supersedes all previous editions)
Sanmac 304/304L is an austenitic chromium-nickel steel with improved machinability.
- ASTM 304, 304L
- UNS S30400, S30403
- EN number 1.4301, 1.4307
- EN name X 5 CrNi 18-10, X 2 CrNi 18-9
- W.Nr. 1.4301
- EN 10088-3
- ASTM A-314
Suitable for the production of flanges etc. according to ASTM A-182 grade F304/304L.
Status according to EN 10 204/3.1
Chemical composition (nominal) %
Forms of supply
Sizes and tolerances
Round-cornered square, as well as round billets, are produced in a wide range of sizes according to the following tables. Larger sizes offered on request.
Unground, spot ground or fully ground condition.
Peel turned or black condition.
|80||+/-2||4 - 6.3|
|100, 114, 126, 140, 150||+/-3||4 - 6.3|
|160, 180, 195, 200||+/-4||4 - 6.3|
|>200 - 350||+/-5||3 - 5.3|
Sizes and tolerances apply to the rolled/forged condition.
|75 - 200 (5 mm interval)||+/-1||max 10|
|>200 - 450||+/-3||3 - 8|
|77 - 112 (5 mm interval)||+/-2||max 10|
|124, 134||+/-2||max 10|
|127, 147, 157||+/-2||max 10|
|142, 152, 163||+/-2||max 10|
|168, 178, 188||+/-2||max 10|
|183, 193||+/-2||max 10|
- Bar and hollow bar (Sanmac)
- Welding wire
- Covered electrodes
Testing is performed on separately solution annealed and quenched test pieces.
The following figures apply to material in the solution annealed and quenched condition.
At 20°C (68°F)
|Proof strength||Tensile strength||Elong.||Contr.||HB|
|Proof strength||Tensile strength||Elong.||Contr.||HB|
1 MPa = 1 N/mm2
a) Rp0.2 and Rp1.0 correspond to 0.2% offset and 1.0% offset yield strengths, respectively.
b) Based on L0 = 5.65ÖS0 , where L0 is the original gauge length and S0 the original cross-sectional area.
The impact energy (Charpy V) at 20°C (68°F) is min 100 J (74 ft-lb).
At high temperatures
|Temperature||Proof strength||Tensile strength|
|Temperature||Proof strength||Tensile strength|
Density: 7.9 g/cm3, 0.29 lb/in3
|°C||Per °C||°F||Per °F|
Sanmac 304/304L has good resistance in:
- Organic acids at moderate temperatures
- Salt solutions, e.g. sulphates, sulphides and sulphites
- Caustic solutions at moderate temperatures
- Oxidising acids like nitric acid
Stress corrosion cracking
Austenitic steels are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. This may occur at temperatures above about 60°C (140°F), if the steel is subjected to tensile stresses and at the same time comes into contact with certain solutions, particularly those containing chlorides. In applications demanding high resistance to stress corrosion cracking, we recommend the austenitic-ferritic steel Sanmac SAF 2205.
Sanmac 304/304L has a low carbon content and, therefore, good resistance to intergranular corrosion.
Pitting and crevice corrosion
The 304/304L grade is relatively low alloyed and, therefore, it may be sensitive to pitting and crevice corrosion, even in solutions of relatively low chloride content. Molybdenum-alloyed steels have better resistance and the resistance improves with an increasing molybdenum content.
Sanmac 304/304L can be used in
- Air up to 850°C (1560°F)
- Steam up to 750°C (1380°F)
- Synthesis gas (ammonia synthesis) up to about 550°C (1020°F)
Creep behaviour should also be taken into account when using the steel in the creep range. In flue gases containing sulphur, corrosion resistance is reduced. In such environments, the steel can be used at temperatures up to 600–750°C (1110–1380°F), depending on service conditions. Factors to consider are whether the atmosphere is oxidizing or reducing, i.e. the oxygen content, and whether impurities, such as sodium and vanadium, are present.
Hot working should be carried out at a material temperature of 900-1200°C (1650-2190°F), cooling in air or in water. If additional heat treatment is needed, it should be carried out in accordance with the recommendations given for heat treatment.
Sanmac 304/304L billets are delivered in hot worked condition. If another heat treatment is needed after further processing, the following is recommended.
1040–1100°C (1900–2010°F), rapid cooling in air or water.
Suitable welding methods for Sanmac 304/304L are manual metal-arc welding with covered electrodes and gasshielded arc welding, with the TIG and MIG methods as first choice. Preheating and post-weld heat treatment are not normally necessary.
Due to the fact that this material is alloyed in such a way that it has good machinability there can be a higher amount of surface oxides on the weld beads, compared to standard 304/304L steels. This may lead to arc instability during TIGwelding. Correct setting of the welding current is very important.
Since the material has low thermal conductivity and high thermal expansion, welding must be carried out with a low heat input and with welding plans well thought out in advance, so that the deformation of the welded joint can be kept under control.
As filler metals for gasshielded arc welding we recommend Sandvik 19.9.L or 19.9.LSi wire electrodes and rods . In manual metal-arc welding, covered electrodes Sandvik 19.9.LR, 19.9.LB or 19.9.LRHD are recommended. Correct setting of the welding current is important.
Filler metals for welding
The sizes listed below are Sandvik stock standard. The local stocks carry sizes in common demand on the market. For technical information on filler metals please refer to brochure S-236-ENG.
Welding electrodes and filler wire/rods
Sanmac stands for Sandvik Machinability Concept. In Sanmac materials, machinability has been improved without jeopardising properties such as corrosion resistance and mechanical strength.
The improved machinability is brought about by:
- Optimised non-metallic inclusions
- Optimal chemical composition
- Optimised process and production parameters
The diagram shows the ranges, within which data should be chosen in order to obtain a tool life of 10 minutes minimum, when machining the austenitic Sanmac 304/304L. The ranges are limited in the event of low feeds, because of unacceptable chip breaking. In the case of high cutting speeds, plastic deformation is the most dominant cause of failure. When feed increases and the cutting speed falls, edge frittering (chipping) increases significantly. The diagram is applicable for short cutting times. For long, continuous cuts, cutting speeds should be reduced.
The lowest recommended cutting speed is determined by the tendency of the material to stick to the insert (built-up-edge), although the integrity of insert clamping and the stability of the machine are also of great significance.
It is important to conclude which wear mechanism is active, in order to optimise cutting data with the aid of the diagram.
Turning Sanmac 304/304L
Recommended insert and cutting data (starting values)
|Insert||Grade||Cutting data, Feed||Cutting speed||
Finishing, copy turning
Medium-to-rough machining under less stable conditions
Drilling Sanmac 304/304L
The recommended methods for drilling give the most cost effective results for the respective diameter ranges. When producing holes with diameters larger than 58 mm, short hole drilling is used up to 58 mm, followed by internal turning, up to the desired diameter. Cutting data for internal turning should be chosen in accordance with the turning recommendations. The recommendations for drilling are applicable for a tool life of 30 minutes.
Short hole drilling, diameter 12.7 - 58 mm
Coromant U-drill, R416.2
|Insert Geometry||Grade||Cutting data, Feed||Cutting speed|
|-53||Central insert GC1020||-||-|
|-53||Peripheral insert GC1020*||0.04-0.18||160|
|-53||Peripheral insert GC3040**||0.04-0.18||200|
* GC1120 for diameters below 17.5 mm
** stable conditions, otherwise use GC1020
Drilling with Sandvik Coromant Delta C drill, diameter 3 - 12.7 mm
Code R415.5. Grade GC1220
(diameter range 3 - 20 mm)
|Cutting data, Feed*||Cutting speed|
* The lower feed value should be selected for smaller diameter
Drilling with high speed steel (HSS) drill
(diameter 1-3 mm)
|Cutting data, Feed*||Cutting speed**|
* The lower feed value should be selected for smaller diameters
** The higher cutting speed should be selected for coated drills
Milling of Sanmac 304/304L
Use of optimum cutting data means that milling can be carried out at cutting speeds above those where there is a risk of built-up edge formation. Dry milling results in long tool life. If coolant is needed (e.g. when the surface cannot be reached in the dry condition), the cutting speed must be reduced by approximately 40-60% to prevent tool wear due to increased thermal load on the inserts.
|Roughing Geometry/Grade||Cutting speed
|Finishing Geometry/Grade||Cutting speed
1) Starting values for dry machining
Threading of Sanmac 304/304L
Indexable inserts can be used for external thread cutting of all diameters. Threading with screw-cutting dies or die heads is economical only for small diameters. For internal threading with short and normal cutting lengths, thread cutting with indexable inserts is recommended above a hole diameter of 12 mm. For long cutting lengths, thread cutting with indexable inserts is recommended for hole diameters above 20 mm.
Due to the tendency of the austenitic materials to work harden, radial infeed is recommended. A generous flow of cutting fluid should be used, partly to obtain a reliable process and partly to guide the chip. The recommnedations apply to a tool-life of 30 minutes.
Compared with uncoated threading taps, coated threading taps can improve productivity by up to 100%. For the advantages of coated threading taps to be realised, a generous flow of cooling fluid must be used. The recommendations apply to a tool life of 30 minutes.
The higher range of cutting data should be chosen for coated threading taps
Sawing of Sanmac 304/304L
Cutting with bandsaws or cold saws gives the best cutting economy. If the demand for surface smoothness is great, circular sawing is preferable.
Band sawing gives high productivity, is flexible and incurs low investment costs.
When band sawing Sanmac 304/304L, the Sandflex Cobra type 3851 bimetallic band which is available from Bahco Group (formerly Sandvik Saws and Tools) is recommended.
Tooth spacing should be selected according to the dimensions of the material to be cut, and stated in TPI (the number of teeth per in.). The TPI should be reduced for thicker dimensions. For a bar dimension of D = 150 mm, 2/3 TPI or 1/2 TPI is recommended.
Feed is regulated to obtain a good chip form.
Sanmac 304/304L is used for a wide range of industrial applications.
|Industrial categories||Typical applications|
|Pulp and paper industry||Couplings|
|Bolts and nuts|
Disclaimer: Recommendations are for guidance only, and the suitability of a material for a specific application can be confirmed only when we know the actual service conditions. Continuous development may necessitate changes in technical data without notice. This datasheet is only valid for Sandvik materials.